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How to Prolonging the Service Life of Aluminum Die-casting Molds?

2023-06-07 15:43:50

How to prolonging the service life of aluminum die-casting molds?

Abstract: The quality of die-casting parts is not only related to factors such as the die-casting machine, human operation, temperature, circulation system, and parameter settings, but also closely related to the mold. 

The commonly used aluminum alloy blanks have a higher overall difficulty in die-casting compared to zinc alloy die-casting.

The quality of die-casting parts is not only related to factors such as the die-casting machine, human operation, temperature, circulation system, and parameter settings, but also closely related to the mold. Due to the higher overall difficulty

 of die-casting for commonly used aluminum alloy blanks compared to zinc alloy die-casting, the lifespan of aluminum alloy die-casting molds is also related to their wear degree. To some extent, extending their service life will definitely be

 helpful for product cost control.

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How to extend the service life of aluminum alloy molds? This is also an important topic, and an effective method can make die-casting work twice the result with half the effort:

Firstly, aluminum casting molds often suffer losses due to the impact of force during the cooperation process. Therefore, effective lubricants should be used for demolding during the production process.

Secondly, the normal operation of the cold and hot circulation system can extend the service life of aluminum alloy molds to a certain extent, while fully ensuring product quality.

Thirdly, after a production cycle is completed, the mold needs to be removed from the die-casting machine, coated with protective oil, and stored in a dry and ventilated place.

Fourthly, when there are abnormalities in the mold cavity, it is important to avoid excessive operation during mold repair and saving, and to achieve moderation to ensure that the mold can be used for a longer time.

In general, in order to maintain a longer service life of aluminum alloy die-casting molds, in addition to operating according to the die-casting production rules and regulations, it is also necessary to pay attention to quality issues such as human

 damage and natural aging during production.

Due to high manufacturing accuracy, high investment, and long production cycle, the cost of die-casting molds is high. Manufacturers of each die-casting mold hope to take effective measures to extend the service life of the die-casting mold. 

However, due to a series of internal and external factors, such as mechanical processing, materials, etc., these influencing factors directly lead to premature failure and scrapping of die-casting molds, resulting in great waste, such as sharp corners, 

erosion, corner cracking, splitting, thermal cracking (cracking), wear and other forms of die-casting mold failure. Generally speaking, defects in the material itself, as well as problems with heat treatment, maintenance, use, and processing, result in 

the failure of die casting molds. So, how can die-casting molds produce high-quality parts with higher precision, lower cost, and higher efficiency in more molds and longer durations? This has increasingly become the focus of people's attention.

1. Defects in Die Casting Mold Materials

Generally speaking, the use of die-casting molds is in a very harsh working environment. Taking aluminum die-casting molds as an example, it is well known that the temperature of aluminum liquid is generally controlled between 650 ℃ and 720 ℃

 during normal use, while the melting point of aluminum is highest at 740 ℃ and lowest at 580 ℃. After thousands of die-casting cycles, the surface of the mold is prone to failure due to defects such as cracking. Therefore, we can see that the 

usage conditions of die-casting molds generally belong to rapid heating and cooling. Die casting die material shall be characteristic hot work die steel with high thermal stability, good fracture toughness and cold and hot fatigue resistance. 

According to relevant information, the most widely used die-casting mold material is H13. H13 material is used in 80% of cavities abroad. Therefore, under reasonable production management and heat treatment conditions, H13 material still has 

satisfactory performance. Before putting into production, a series of inspections should be conducted on the materials, commonly used methods include ultrasonic inspection, metallographic inspection, and macroscopic erosion inspection to 

prevent defective materials from causing excessive processing costs and early scrapping of molds.

2. Effective Methods and Countermeasures for Improving the Life of Die Casting Dies

2.1 Develop a complete and practical mold production management system

The main forms of failure of die-casting molds include erosion, wear, thermal cracking (cracking), splitting, corner cracking, sharp corners, etc., causing great waste. In order to effectively realize the computer information management system of 

mold product progress management, plan management, process data governance, and data governance, the author suggests that a complete and practical mold production management system can be developed, so that mold auxiliary 

information and manufacturing information can be tracked and managed in an all-round way throughout the whole process of completion delivery and plan formulation. This includes warehouse management, product maintenance, workshop 

task allocation, mold process development, mold design, and mold production plan development. At the same time, mold manufacturing, mold design impact analysis library, and failure mode analysis library can be established through computer 

sharing, announcements, meetings, and other methods, as effective reference standards for future design and quality assessment. In addition, in order to ensure timely availability of relevant resources, it is also necessary to establish a mold usage 

table, a list of vulnerable parts, a preparation of processing technology, a list of heat treated parts, a list of materials, a list of standard parts, a preparation of processing technology, a list of self-made parts, a list of standard parts, a list of purchased

 parts, and a summary of mold parts. Strict standardization of testing methods, establishment of quality inspection departments, combined with production progress management and planning management, eliminate the mentality of "almost 

close" luck, only in this way can we effectively strengthen the sense of responsibility of designers and operators, and ensure the accuracy of various parts of the mold.

2.2 Strengthen rust prevention and maintenance of die-casting molds

This product is made from petroleum solvents, film-forming materials, and various high-quality anti rust additives. It is suitable for the anti rust maintenance of plastic molds and die-casting molds in production and storage, as well as other metal 

tools and parts. Transparent soft film, which does not harden, can be quickly removed during the injection molding process, meeting environmental and safety standards. It has functions such as oxidation resistance, acid resistance, corrosion 

resistance, moisture resistance, and drainage, with a protection period of more than one year. It is especially suitable for the maintenance of molds that frequently process transparent products. Ultra strong permeability and adsorption can form 

unique moisture and air replacement components on the surface of the mold and various metal surfaces, effectively preventing various adverse factors from corroding the metal surface, achieving long-term and comprehensive anti-corrosion and 

rust prevention of the mold. Before use, clean the molds that require rust prevention maintenance (after cleaning with green sodium mold cleaning agent, use green sodium mold rust prevention agent for maintenance to achieve the best 

maintenance effect). Shake the rust prevention agent well and spray it evenly at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from the surface of the mold to form a thin film that provides sufficient rust prevention protection. Keep the environment ventilated 

during use and avoid storage in direct sunlight or exposure to environments exceeding 50 ℃, Avoid touching the eyes. Main performance indicators: original liquid appearance: transparent; Specific gravity: 0.78 g/cubic centimeter (DIN51757); 

Membrane type: waxy soft film; Non volatile content: 29%; Scope of application: Suitable for all metals, without damage to plastics and rubber; Temperature range: -20 ℃~15 ℃; Salt spray test: Passed (50 ℃, 72 hours, 45 # steel sheet); Protection 

type: indoor dry and refreshing environment; Environmental standards: comply with the Montreal Protocol and EU RoHS standards.

2.3 Increase investment in technology and improve the service life of molds

For die-casting enterprises that use molds, the lifespan of molds is very noteworthy. However, in reality, it is not only the heat treatment and cavity materials of molds that affect the lifespan of molds. In fact, important factors that affect the lifespan

 of molds include mold strength, mold structure, etc. Mold processing methods and processes are also more important for mold lifespan. If the strength of the mold is insufficient and the mold structure is unreasonable, it will greatly affect the 

lifespan of the mold. So, we must increase investment in technology, improve the lifespan of molds, improve the level of mold design and manufacturing, and provide conditions for die-casting enterprises to improve economic efficiency.

On the one hand, we should continue to increase research efforts in surface treatment, heat treatment, mold materials, advanced processing technologies and processes. On the other hand, we need to improve mold structure design and other 

aspects to improve the level of mold manufacturing. At present, mold enterprises in Germany and Japan have begun to adopt advanced processing technology and centers to reduce the hard layer on the surface of the mold and hard process the 

mold cavity, which greatly improves the mold life.

2.4 Correct selection of die-casting mold materials

The most important part in die-casting mold parts is the forming work part that comes into contact with the metal liquid, usually made of hot-working mold steel. According to performance, it belongs to high heat strength hot mold steel; 

According to alloy elements, it belongs to medium alloy hot mold steel. Due to the significant temperature difference of the die-casting material, the requirements for the material and performance of the die-casting mold are also different. The 

materials used for manufacturing zinc alloy, magnesium alloy, and aluminum alloy die-casting molds must have high tempering resistance, cold and hot fatigue resistance, and good nitrogen (nitrogen carbon co doping) process performance. 

However, the working conditions for copper alloy die-casting molds are more stringent, and the materials should also have high thermal strength to prevent deformation and cracking, as well as high thermal conductivity to reduce temperature 

gradients and reduce thermal stress. Therefore, while fully tapping into the potential of 3Cr2W8V steel, China's die-casting industry is actively developing new steel grades for die-casting molds, with the most representative new steel grade being 


3 Conclusion

In short, we should start from the direction of benefiting the service life of die-casting molds, consider everything for customers, and start from the actual production of die-casting. We should improve the service life of molds, improve the 

efficiency of die-casting production, improve the convenience of mold use and maintenance, pay attention to mold details, and improve the level of manufacturing and design. This is our future direction of effort and research and development, in

 order to enhance the overall level of China's die-casting industry, and only in this way can we enhance the complexity of China Precision and large die-casting molds are horizontal.

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