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Sand Casting: An Overview

2024-01-15 13:48:26

Sand Casting: An Overview

The sand casting process, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting technique that utilizes sand as the mold material. This method accounts for over 60% of all metal castings. Let's delve into the key aspects of sand casting.

Process Flows of Sand Casting:

The general flow of the sand casting process involves four main steps: sand making, core making, casting, and post-processing. Refer to the diagram below for a visual representation of the process flows.

1705297511158516.jpgInsert Sand Casting Process Flows Diagram

Parameters to Consider in the Sand Casting Process:

  1. Machining Allowance:

    • Design consideration for surfaces requiring machining on the casting.

    • Dependent on casting alloy, molding method, size of the casting, and location of machined surfaces in the mold.

  2. Draft Angle:

    • Slope on the vertical mold wall for easy removal of the casting.

    • Facilitates the extraction of the casting from the mold.

  3. Casting Fillet:

    • Designing fillets at joints and corners to prevent stress, cracks, and damage to sharp corners.

    • A measure to avoid the formation of sand holes.

  4. Core Head:

    • Essential for positioning, fixing, and venting of the core in both the mold and core.

  5. Shrinkage Allowance:

    • Compensation for dimensions affected by shrinkage after pouring.

Advantages of Sand Casting:

  1. Abundant and Inexpensive Material:

    • Clay, a primary component of green sand, is abundant and recyclable.

  2. Short Casting Mold Production Period:

    • High molding efficiency due to a short production period for casting molds.

  3. Long Service Life of Molding Sand:

    • Molding sand has a prolonged service life.

  4. Versatility:

    • Applicable to small or large, simple or complex workpieces.

    • Suitable for individual production or mass production.

Disadvantages of Sand Casting:

  1. Single Use of Sand Molds:

    • Each sand mold can only be used once, requiring remolding and reducing production efficiency.

  2. Lower Rigidity and Dimensional Accuracy:

    • Casting exhibits lower rigidity, leading to poor dimensional accuracy.

  3. Susceptibility to Defects:

    • Prone to defects such as sand washing, sand trapping, and blowholes.

In summary, while sand casting offers advantages such as cost-effectiveness and versatility, it comes with challenges related to mold reusability and dimensional accuracy. Understanding these aspects is crucial for effective utilization of the sand casting process.


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